by: Caruso Davis M, Guillot T, Yu Y, Mashtalir N, Bissoon L, Dhurandhar N, Greenway F

Published in Obesity Journal 16 (suppl. 1):S161, 2008.
Presented at NAASO Annual Scientific Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. October 3-7, 2008.

 

Background

Local  fat  reduction  for  cosmetic  purposes  utilizes  two  different mechanisms. One  is  an  ablative mechanism  in which the fat cells are destroyed, exemplified by the combination of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholate (DC). PC with DC is felt to cause local fat reduction secondary to the detergent action of DC, and it is also believed that PC acts only as an emulsifier. The other mechanism of  local  fat reduction  is non!ablative  in which  fat cells release  their  fat,  exemplified  by  Lipo Laser  (LL) which  emits  low  energy  laser  light.  The  Lipo Laser  has  been  shown  by electron microscopy to open pores  in  fat cells allowing the triglyceride to  leak out  into the  interstitial space.

We performed studies to elucidate the mechanism of the two types of local fat reduction.

 

Methods

We measured  the  lipolytic  response  and  appearance  of  human  fat  cells  in  culture  to  PC  and DC  exposure. We exposed  human  fat  cells  in  culture  to  laser  light  or  an  ambient  light  condition  in  the  presence  of  serum,  heat inactivated serum, or no serum. We also evaluated human fat cells in culture for metabolic activity and cell viability when exposed to LL or ambient light.

 

Results

PC stimulated  lipolysis 2.3  fold compared to assay buffer  (p<0.001). DC, a detergent destroyed all the human  fat cells at 10!1 M, destroyed half the cells at 10!2 M, at 10!3 M, the fat cells were not destroyed. Exposure to serum and heat  inactivated  serum both destroyed  the human  fat  cells  in  response  to  either  LL or  ambient  light,  confirming that the creation of pores in the fat cells was by a non-complement mediated mechanism. Human fat cells in culture exposed to LL and to ambient  light had the same number of non viable cells, but cells exposed to LL had lower metabolism, consistent with the stress of having pores in the cell membrane (p<0.0001).

 

Conclusions

The  combination  of  PC  and  DC  destroys  fat  cells  by  a  detergent  action  based  on  the  DC  content.  At  low concentrations  of DC,  PC  can  act  as  a  lipolytic  stimulator  to  reduce  fat  by  a non-ablative mechanism.  Lipo Laser opens pores in fat cells and allows egress of the triglycerides contained within them. Lipo Laser open pores in the fat cells by a non-complement dependent mechanism, but does decrease  fat cell metabolism without affecting the viability of the fat cells.

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