by: Caruso Davis M, Guillot T, Yu Y, Mashtalir N, Bissoon L, Dhurandhar N, Greenway F
Published in Obesity Journal 16 (suppl. 1):S161, 2008.
Presented at NAASO Annual Scientific Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. October 3-7, 2008.
Local fat reduction for cosmetic purposes utilizes two different mechanisms. One is an ablative mechanism in which the fat cells are destroyed, exemplified by the combination of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholate (DC). PC with DC is felt to cause local fat reduction secondary to the detergent action of DC, and it is also believed that PC acts only as an emulsifier. The other mechanism of local fat reduction is non!ablative in which fat cells release their fat, exemplified by Lipo Laser (LL) which emits low energy laser light. The Lipo Laser has been shown by electron microscopy to open pores in fat cells allowing the triglyceride to leak out into the interstitial space.
We performed studies to elucidate the mechanism of the two types of local fat reduction.
We measured the lipolytic response and appearance of human fat cells in culture to PC and DC exposure. We exposed human fat cells in culture to laser light or an ambient light condition in the presence of serum, heat inactivated serum, or no serum. We also evaluated human fat cells in culture for metabolic activity and cell viability when exposed to LL or ambient light.
PC stimulated lipolysis 2.3 fold compared to assay buffer (p<0.001). DC, a detergent destroyed all the human fat cells at 10!1 M, destroyed half the cells at 10!2 M, at 10!3 M, the fat cells were not destroyed. Exposure to serum and heat inactivated serum both destroyed the human fat cells in response to either LL or ambient light, confirming that the creation of pores in the fat cells was by a non-complement mediated mechanism. Human fat cells in culture exposed to LL and to ambient light had the same number of non viable cells, but cells exposed to LL had lower metabolism, consistent with the stress of having pores in the cell membrane (p<0.0001).
The combination of PC and DC destroys fat cells by a detergent action based on the DC content. At low concentrations of DC, PC can act as a lipolytic stimulator to reduce fat by a non-ablative mechanism. Lipo Laser opens pores in fat cells and allows egress of the triglycerides contained within them. Lipo Laser open pores in the fat cells by a non-complement dependent mechanism, but does decrease fat cell metabolism without affecting the viability of the fat cells.